The name Praiano comes from the Latin Pelagium, which means 'open sea'. Even if there are not many information about this Amalfi Coast town before the Middle Ages, the area was already inhabited during Roman Empire. Praiano belonged once to the Sea Republic of Amalfi and the doges choose it as their summer residence.
Still today it boasts a Middle Ages tower that belonged to the system of towers once built to defend Amalfi Coast from the Saracen incursions: the 'Assiola' Tower, also called “Sciola”. In the Angevin period there were two hamlets forming Praiano and Vettica Maggiore, the latter has become a fraction , which later freed from Amalfi and developed a strong maritime economy thanks to a berthing place for ships called "scarricaturo ".
Coral fishing was an activity practiced by the inhabitants of Praiano until the end of 1800. Spinning, flax processing, production of hairnets, in which women were specialized, and brining anchovies were the most thriving local activities.